What is Value Added Tax?


Taxes are levied on products at every production stage, from manufacture to sale. They are based on the product’s price, not the manufacturing material price.  

The prime goal of this blog is to provide you with the necessary information to fully understand what the VAT tax. Without further ado, let’s get started with the follow-up article to learn more about this.

What is Value Added Tax (VAT)?

 At every stage of production or distribution, value-added taxes (VAT) are levied on goods and services that add value, starting from raw materials until retail. VAT was introduced in April 2005.

 It tells you how much value you add at each step, and you pay taxes based on that amount. Consumers finally pay the full VAT when they buy goods, whereas buyers at earlier stages get reimbursed. Because the total tax is passed on to the consumer, the VAT tax is considered a consumption tax.

The VAT laws are levied by each state to ensure proper implementation and assessment. Different states apply different VAT rates based on their implied laws.

Why Was VAT Introduced?

Introducing the VAT tax was the first step towards eliminating double taxation and cascading effects caused by the then-existing sales tax structure. Consequently, the cascading effect occurs when a tax is imposed on a product at every stage of its sales process. As a result, the consumer pays taxes on taxes already paid, so the tax is calculated on the property’s value, including the taxes paid by the previous buyer.

In the VAT system, no exemptions are possible. Taxes are charged at each level of the production process, ensuring better compliance and fewer loopholes for exploitation.

Pros and Cons of Value Added Tax (VAT)


  • The tax loopholes in the income tax could be closed by substituting a VAT for other types of taxes, such as the income tax.
  • A VAT has a stronger incentive to encourage people to earn more than a progressive income tax. 


  • Businesses are burdened with higher costs as a result of VAT.
  • As a consequence, tax evasion may be encouraged.
  • Added costs increase prices, which is particularly difficult for lower-income consumers.

VAT Registration

If a company generates revenue exceeding Rs. 5 lakh by selling goods and services, it is mandatory to register for VAT. All such entities must register with the relevant state where they operate. The registration process for VAT is essential for an enterprise to pay VAT.

All traders are given an individual 11-digit registration number upon registration, which is used to communicate all details regarding the VAT tax.

You need to submit some essential documents during VAT registration, including the following list of documents:

  • A copy of the PAN
  • Business address proof
  • Promoters’ identification proof
  • An additional security deposit or surety

Rates of VAT in India 

State governments collect a value-added tax, and the guidelines and rules applied to its implementation vary widely from state to state. Value-added tax in India is divided into four major categories, which are as follows:

Nil: It is generally considered that items that fall under this category are exempt from VAT. These represent products and services deemed essential and sold in the unorganized sector. Some of these are items such as khadi or salt.

1%: This class of goods usually has a higher price than other products that belong to this class. There is a reason that VAT is charged at a rate of 1% on expensive goods. If the VAT rate is increased, this will mean that the prices of these items will increase considerably. This category comprises gold, silver, precious stones, and other things.

4-5%: Some daily items are subject to VAT at 4%–5%. These items include cooking oil, tea, medicines, etc.

General: It has been established that the items that fall under the general category are subject to VAT rates ranging from 12% to 15%. Most things under the general category are considered luxury items, such as cigarettes, alcoholic beverages, etc.

Value Added Tax Collection in India

Account-based collection of VAT

In the account-based method of collecting your taxes, there is no need for sale receipts. Instead, you calculate your taxes based on the value added. Value added equals the difference between the revenue and the allowable purchase amount.

Invoice-based collection of VAT

Traders who sell goods and services provide invoices that include separate details about the VAT collected. The invoice-based VAT collection method uses sale receipts or invoices to determine the corresponding VAT. A lot of countries today collect VAT based on invoices. Another way to categorize VAT collection is to assess when it was collected.

Accrual-based collection

A company collects revenues according to the period during which the income is generated. The accrual-based collection matches the remittance with the period during which the revenue is generated. Unlike the cash-based method of collecting VAT, this method is very complicated.

However, it provides essential information regarding any business.

Cash-based collection of VAT

A cash-based accounting system is more straightforward than an accrual-based system.

The focus is on the cash being handled rather than whether all the charges have been paid. Once reimbursement has been received, that date is recorded as the date on which funds have been received.

Example of value added tax

Ram owns a restaurant and purchases raw materials for it at a cost of Rs. 50,000.

The input tax on the raw materials is 10%, so the input tax on the raw materials will be Rs. 5,000.

As a result, Ram was able to make Rs. 100,000. Considering an output tax of 10%, Ram could make Rs. 10,000 after selling the food made from the purchased raw materials.

Therefore, Ram must pay Rs. 5,000 in VAT tax instead of Rs. 10,000.

How to Register for VAT Online?

You must follow the following steps to register for VAT online in India.

  •  Firstly, you need to go to the official website of the VAT and click on the tab titled “Registration.”
  •  Upload all of the relevant documents and enter all of the relevant information.
  •  You will receive a temporary VAT number if you register on behalf of a corporation.
  • After you send in your application and all the required paperwork, you will get a VAT number that will stay with you for the rest of your life. 


Products are subject to a variety of taxes that are levied on them. An excellent example of one of these tax types is the value-added tax. We hope that this article helped you clarify any doubts that you had about this topic. Your comments encourage us to write better.